Safety of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Evidence Based Update 2016

Bikson et al, 2016. Brain Stimulation.

  • An evidence-based review of the safety of using tDCS in various disorders and conditions.
  • Based on data from over 1,000 participants and over 33,200 treatment sessions, including participants from potentially vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly, and persons with epilepsy, stroke, and mood disorders.
  • The review did not find a single Serious Adverse Effect (death, seizure, or memory loss) or injury in over 33,200 treatment sessions.
  • The review concluded tDCS as safe to use in adult, adolescent and elderly populations.


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